Grand Slams – Not Just For Baseball

19 May

bighorn sheep hunting,california bighorn sheep,hunting guides,hunting outfitters

For most people, the term grand slam is closely associated with the great American past-time of baseball.  But for us hunters, the term has a whole different meaning.  For the novice amongst us, the term grand slam refers to harvesting all the subspecies within a species.  While there are many slams, one of the most highly sought after and prized is the North American Grand Slam of Sheep.  Comprised of four distinct subspecies, each is magnificent and awe inspiring in its own way.  Here is a quick rundown for you to dream about as you plan your Grand Slam of North American Sheep.

1.  Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep:bighorn sheep hunting,hunting rocky mountain sheep,fnaws,hunting guides,hunting outfitters

Ranging from Canada to New Mexico, horns of these brute can reach 40+ inches in length and weigh over 30 lbs.  Muscular and compact, it is the largest of the four sheep that comprise our slam.  With its white muzzle and rump, the rams inspire awe as they race toward each other at 20 mph in a clash of titans.  Rising on their hind legs, they slam heads in a show of dominance and for the right to mate with the ewes.  Put this sheep high on your list as you begin you own grand slam.


2.  Dall Sheep:

Dall sheep hunting,alaska dall sheep,hunting guides,hunting outfittersHead north to Alaska for the second leg of our grand slam.  Dall Sheep generally frequent high, dry, alpine ridges with escape routes readily available.  There pure white hide blends in with their snow covered environment.  While not as large as the Rocky Mountain Bighorn, male Dall Sheep can still reach 300 lbs. with horns reaching 40 inches in length.  Taking eight years to reach full length, these sheep are the only pure white sheep living in the wild.


3.  Desert Bighorn Sheep:

bighorn sheep hunting,hunting guides,hunting outfittersCrisscrossing the North American continent we head to the deserts of Nevada, California and down in to Old Mexico.  Smaller than its cousin the Rocky Mountain Bighorn,  these sheep typically have a flatter and wider spreading set of horns.  As it's name implies, the Desert Bighorn is adept at surviving in harsh, drought-like conditions.  The Desert Bighorn uses two mechanisms to cool itself in these harsh environs – perspiring and panting, which is unusual for desert dwellers.  With eyes that can see up to a mile away, these sheep are elusive and will test any hunters abilities.


4.  Stone Sheep:

Last, but certainly not least in our slam, ibighorn sheep hunting,hunting guides,hunting outfitterss the Stone Sheep.  You will be headed back north to British Columbia and the Yukon in search of this last leg of your slam.  Slate grey in appearance with a white face and neck, this sheep usually seeks treeless ranges with good visibility in all directions to enable it to spot approaching predators.  Interbreeding with the Dall Sheep creates, the Fannin Sheep which is also considered to be a Stone Sheep. 


There you have the list of the species comprising the North American Grand Slam of Sheep.  Add your own "slam" or feel free to share your stories on our website at The Hunting Broker member forum.

Remember, time in the field is a gift, savor it!

Until next time, Happy Hunting.




The Bear Facts

24 Mar

grizzly bear hunting,hunt grizzlies,hunting outfitters,hunting guides

Most hunters begin their hunting adventures by pursuing locally available species.  Depending on your geographic location, these typically include mule deer, whitetail deer, elk and all types of waterfowl and upland game birds.  As we start to tick off our "bucket list" of huntable game, our interest eventually turns to bear hunting.  There bear hunting,hunting black bear,hunting guides,hunting outfittersare several species of bear to  hunt, but here are the most popular, in no particular order:

1.  Black Bear:

The name Black bear is really a misnomer as this bear comes in several colors, not just black.  Color phases include blond, brown and cinnamon.  The most populous of all the bears, it is estimated that their population is twice that of all other bears combined.  Common in all areas of North America, this is a great choice to begin your bear hunting career with.  Professional bear hunting outfitters are abundant, and many areas have multiple bear limits.  Expect to pay $2,500 for inland bears, up to $6,000 for big Coastal black bear.

2.  Brown Bear:

hunting brown bear,brown bear hunting,hunting guides,hunting outfittersThese behemoths are truly the king of bears, rivaling the Polar bear as the largest member of the bear family.  Distributed through much of Northern Eurasia and North America, this bruin can grow to 1,700 pounds and in excess of 10' tall.  With population estimates of 200,000 these bear are plentiful and are one of the most stunning trophies any bear hunter can have.  Look to Alaska and Russia for the best Brown Bear hunting.  Expect to pay $9,000 to $12,000 for one of these giants.

3.  Grizzly Bear:

grizzly bear hunting,hunting grizzly bear,hunting guides,hunting outfittersActually a subspecies of the Brown Bear, this bruin is found in the interior areas of North America.  The term Grizzly bear comes from the distinctive brown coats with gray or "grizzled" tips on the end.  Smaller than the coastal Brown Bear, the Grizzly bear typically weighs about 800 pounds and stands 8-9 feet tall.  Highly adaptable, the Grizzly can be found in mountain pine forests, temperate rain forests and arid scrubland.  Look to British Columbia for great Grizzly hunting and expect to pay $8,000 to $10,000 with a reputable outfitter.

4.  Polar Bear:

polar bear hunting,hunt polar bear,hunting guides,hunting outfittersThe least populous of our huntable bears, this giant is found only in the Arctic Circle and is the largest of all the bears.  With its elongated skull, adapted for hunting seals in open air holes, this bear is born on land, but most comfortable at sea.  It's scientific name actually means "maritime bear".  Polar bear hides are not currently importable into the United States due to CITES restrictions.  Hunting of Polar bears has been sharply curtailed over the past few years, and finding a current hunting outfitter can be difficultCosts for this bear will run in the $30,000 range, but could be higher.


Well that is a quick rundown of your choices for all you new, and you old, bear hunters.  Check out our quality bear outfitters at  Please add any additional hunts that you have been on or would like to discuss.

Remember, time in the field is a gift.  Savor it!

Until next time, Happy Hunting

Bob Russell

The Hunting Broker


The Final Inspecton

17 Mar





The Soldier stood and faced God,

 Which must always come to pass.

 He hoped his shoes were shining,

 Just as brightly as his brass..


'Step forward now,Soldier ,

 How shall I deal with you?

 Have you always turned the other cheek?

 To My Church have you been true?'

The soldier squared his shoulders and said,

 'No, Lord, I guess I ain't.

 Because those of us who carry guns,

 Can't always be a saint.


I've had to work most Sundays,

 And at times my talk was tough.

 And sometimes I've been violent,

 Because the world is awfully rough.


But, I never took a penny,

That wasn't mine to keep…

Though I worked a lot of overtime,

 When the bills got just too steep.


And I never passed a cry for help,

Though at times I shook with fear..

And sometimes, God, forgive me,

 I've wept unmanly tears.


I know I don't deserve a place,

Among the people here.

They never wanted me around,

 Except to calm their fears


If you've a place for me here, Lord,

It needn't be so grand.

I never expected or had too much,

 But if you don't, I'll understand.


There was a silence all around the throne,

Where the saints had often trod.

As the Soldier waited quietly,

 For the judgment of his God.


'Step forward now, you Soldier,

You've borne your burdens well.

Walk peacefully on Heaven's streets,

 You've done your time in Hell.'


Author Unknown~


It's the Soldier, not the reporter 
Who has given us the freedom of the press.


It's the Soldier, not the poet, 
Who has given us the freedom of speech.


It's the Soldier, not the politicians 
That ensures our right to Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness..


It's the Soldier who salutes the flag, 
Who serves beneath the flag, 
And whose coffin is draped by the flag.

If you care to offer the smallest token of recognition and appreciation for the Military, 
Please pass this on and pray for our men and women
Who have served and are currently serving our country
And pray for those who have given the ultimate sacrifice for freedom….


Africa – Know Before You Go

07 Mar

african safaris, hunting africa, hunting guides,hunting outfitters

For many first time hunters to Africa, planning the safari can seem like an overwhelming task.  With over forty species to hunt in South Africa alone, the hunter needs to identify which species he or she will pursue and prioritize each trip.  Typically, your first safari with a professional hunter will consist of a plains game hunt in South Africa.  However, the term "plains game" includes many species and can be confusing.  Here is a sample of some of the more popular choices for your first safari:

1.  Kudu:african safari, hunting africa,hunting guides,hunting outfitters

With their corkscrew shaped horns and their distinctive faces, Kudu are one of the most popular choices when hunting plains game.  Among the larger of the antelope found in South Africa, it is easy to see why this animal is at the top of most hunters list.  Abundant and beautiful, these antelope will make a stunning addition to your trophy room.

african safari,hunting africa,hunting guides,hunting outfitters

2.  Impala:

Smaller than the Kudu, Impala are graceful and magnificent to watch as they travel the open plains of South Africa.  Tan in color, with distinctive ridges on their horns that come together at the top, these are definitely one of the more popular antelope available.  


african safaris,hunting africa,hunting guides,hunting outfitters



3.  Blesbuck:

With it's distinctive white blazed face, the Blesbuck should be a consideration for your first African safari.  Larger than an Impala, the Blesbuck has the similar distinctive ridges adorning its horns.  The dark reddish brown coat makes this antelope stand out, and will give hunters another option for their trophy room.



african safari,hunting africa,hunting guides,hunting outfitters

4.  Gemsbock:

One of my personal favorites, the Gemsbock or Oryx, has long, curved horns stretching skyward like two daggers.  With it's unique stripped face, this antelope is a trophy any hunter will cherish.  One of the larger antelopes, this would round out a plains game hunt in style.


This is only one group of animals you might want to consider on your first African safari, but certainly not an exhaustive list.  Warthog, Wildebeest, Hardebeest, Duiker, and Sable are other options available.  This list doesn't even consider dangerous game such as Cape Buffalo, Lion and Leopard.

Get started now, and enjoy Africa for years to come.  Please add your own personal favorites to our list and be sure to check out our new Member Forum at and share your thoughts or experiences.

Remember, time in the field is a gift, savor it.

Until next time, Happy Hunting.









Field Care of Your Hunting Trophy – What You Do Affects What You Taste

02 Jan

elk hunting,hunting elk,hunting guides,hunting outfitters

Many people will tell you that venison (elk, deer, moose, antelope) is too "gamey" to eat, and that hunters only eat it to justify our sport.  I will be the first to admit that some game meat that I have eaten is gamey, and almost inedible.  Consider what your beef would taste like if you ran it for 400 yards before shooting it, then drug it through the mud back to your camp, didn't field dress it for 24 hours, and then threw it in the back of your truck and drove 8 hours to the butcher.  Chances are, it would be a bit "gamey" as well.  Therefore here are a few tips for all us hunters to properly care for that trophy to insure it tastes as good as we know it can:

1.  Make a Clean Shot:

This is the first, and most important step to insure that your game meat is tasty.  An animal that has been wounded immediately begins pumping adrenaline which ultimately will affect the taste of your meat.  Be sure of your shot. Practice so that when your opportunity comes you can be successful and make an ethical shot on that trophy elk or deer.

2.  Keep it Clean:

During your field dressing make sure to keep your meat as clean as possible.  Keep hair and dirt away from the meat as much as possible.  Make sure the bladder and intestines stay in tact and do not contaminate the meat.  While this is not always possible, take your time when field dressing your game and your results will be tasted at the dinner table. 

3.  Cool Your Meat Quickly:

This is very important to preserving the quality of your venison.  Once you have field dressed your elk, deer, or bear, prop the chest cavity open to increase cooling of the interior body cavity.  As soon as possible, skin the hide off your trophy which will also increase cooling of the meat.  If you are going to skin your trophy in the field, take care not to contaminate it with dirt and other debris while working through your skinning process.

4.  Keep it Dry:

Nothing will spoil meat quicker than rain or drizzle beating down on your game meat.  Locate your meat pole in a protected area and make sure to cover it with a tarp or some other rain resistant cover.  This will insure that your meat cools properly while still being protected from the spoiling effects of rain.  Rain creates the "sour" taste sometimes associated with deer and elk.

5.  Use a Reputable Meat Processor:

There is nothing worse than taking all the precautions mentioned above to insure that your game is tasty and delicious, then taking it to a meat processing center that mixes your game with all other hunters game.  Inquire as to the procedure for insuring that your deer, elk or antelope is designated as the meat you receive after processing.

As always, if you have any other great tips for insuring that your game meat is the best it can be, feel free to comment and leave your suggestions.

Remember, time in the field is a gift…..savor it!

Until next time, Happy Hunting.

Bob Russell

The Hunting Broker






Whitetail Deer Hunting – An Option for Every Hunter

18 Dec

hunting whitetails,whitetail deer hunting,hunting guides,hunting outfitters

Whitetail deer are the most hunted species in North America.  Partly due to their abundant numbers, partly due to their elusive nature and partly due to the myriad number of hunting shows dedicated to this subject, Odocoileus virginianus permeates our hunting psyche.  So if you are one of the millions in search of this trophy, here are some options for you to consider:

1.  Saskatchewan/Alberta, Canadahunting whitetails, whitetail deer hunting, hunting guides,hunting outfitters

Home to some true monsters, these Canadian provinces consistently produce Whitetail deer in the 170″ and above category.  Hunting during the rut in November, these mammoths lose some of their stealthiness while in search of a mate.  If you go, be choosy.  It is easy to take the first good buck you see, but with a little patience, the opportunity to harvest a true trophy Whitetail is good.

hunting whitetail deer,whitetail deer hunting, hunting guides,hunting outfitters2.  Kansas, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana:

Head to the heartland of America for Whitetail deer hunting at its best.  This is ground zero of the whitetail revolution of managing land exclusively for the deer populations.  Food plots sewn with all varieties of Whitetail browse, keep these animals healthy and produce great antler growth.  Nutrition is the key to massive antlers, and the folks in the Midwest know their deer.

3.  Arizona:

The desert Southwest is home to a subspecies of Whitetail deer, the Coues deer.  Smaller than its cousin, this deer is one of the most elusive of all deer species. hunting whitetail deer,whitetail deer hunting,hunting guides,hunting outfittersKnown as the “Gray Ghost” of the desert, these diminutive deer have been known to sneak through the sage and juniper on their knees.  Racks in the 120″ range are considered trophies, but the true trophy is the pursuit of this deer.  Also widespread throughout Mexico, add this to your list of Whitetail deer to pursue.

4.  Whitetail Deer Ranches/Preserves:

whitetail deer hunting,hunt whitetail deer,hunting guides,hunting outfittersLocated throughout the United States and Canada, Whitetail deer ranches produce truly gargantuan deer that only selective breeding could produce.  These deer barely resemble their free ranging brethren, with racks that can exceed 400″ of antler mass.  Fast becoming a booming industry, much like horse breeding, these ranches offer a truly unique experience for the hunter.  But go prepared.  Harvesting a monster Whitetail deer from a ranch/preserve can cost you thousands of dollars.  But if you are looking for that once in a lifetime buck, this might be your hunt of choice.

This list could go on forever, as the folks in Montana, Idaho, British Columbia, and many other areas will testify.  Add your own Whitetail deer honey hole to this list.

Until next time, Happy Hunting.

Remember, time in the field is a gift……savor it!   Merry Christmas to you and yours.

Bob Russell

The Hunting Broker


Elk Hunting in Oregon – Location, Location, Location

07 Dec

hunting guides,hunting outfitters,elk hunting,british columbia

Like many states, trying to figure out Oregon's myriad elk hunting seasons and locations can cause any normal hunter to throw his hands up in despair.  To confuse matters even more, Oregon is one of the few states that has both Rocky Mountain Elk and Roosevelt Elk hunting available.  So before you can apply, you need to know which species you are hunting, and that will help you wade through the limited draw system.  Here is a quick overview of elk hunting seasons in Oregon:

1.  Cascade Bull Elk:

This is the earliest season in Oregon and is considered a "general season" meaning to limited entry in to this area.  This is one of the most unique elk hunts because it is conducted in the Cascade range of Oregon which splits the wet coastal western side and the arid, high desert region of the eastern.  Also unique because you can find both Rocky Mountain and Roosevelt elk in this area and both are legal to take.


2.  Rocky Mountain Bull Elk:

Consisting of both a general season and a "controlled hunt", these hunts are conducted simultaneously in different units within Oregon.  The limited entry areas are those hunting units east of the Cascade Mountains and typically entails a variety of habitat.  The northeastern units are very rugged with deep canyons bordering the Snake  and Grand Ronde rivers.  The southeastern units consist of high desert units with juniper cover and sagebrush.  The General season areas consist of a very few units in the north end of the Cascade Mountains running to the Columbia River.  This is Rocky Mountain elk territory as indicated by the name of the season.  This season usually begins the last Wednesday in October and runs for five short days.


3.  Coast Bull Elk:

This is our Western Oregon elk hunting conducted in the Coast Range of Oregon from the Columbia River in the north to the California border in the south.  This is a general season with the exception of a few units, so anyone can hunt elk during this season.  You must know which units are "controlled" units however, because they are intermingled with the general season units.  Hunt these units if you are looking for monster Roosevelt Elk. This is a split season beginning in mid- November and running for four days.  Then it resumes again in late November for another seven days.


4.  Rocky Mountain Extended Season:

There is one special season in Oregon which runs from late October to early December and is conducted in the Columbia basin area of Oregon.  This is a general season but consists mostly of private land, so public access is very difficult.  Home to Rocky Mountain elk, hunt this season only if you know a landowner who will let you hunt his land.


Confused?  I don't blame you.  The main thing is to determine what type of hunting you prefer.  Rocky Mountain elk primarily live in the drier, more open areas of Oregon, while the Roosevelt elk primarily live in the lush rainforests of the Oregon Coast Range.  Either way, Oregon has the second largest elk population in the U.S. at around 120,000 elk, so get your gun and join us this fall.

Remember, time in the field is a gift…..savor it!

Until next time, Happy Hunting.

Bob Russell


Medal of Honor Hero

28 Nov

hunting guides,hunting outfitters,veterans,disabled veteran hunts

You're a 19 year old kid.

You're critically wounded and dying in
the jungle somewhere in the Central Highlands of Viet Nam .

It's November 11, 1967.
LZ (landing zone) X-ray.

Your unit is outnumbered 8-1 and the enemy fire is so  intense from 100 yards away, that  your CO (commanding officer) has ordered the MedEvac helicopters to stop coming  in.

You're lying there, listening to the enemy machine guns and you know you're not getting out.

Your family is half way around the world, 12,000 miles away, and you'll never see them again.

As the world starts to fade in and out, you know this is the day.

Then – over the machine gun noise – you faintly hear that sound of a helicopter.

You look up to see a Huey coming in. But… It doesn't seem real because no MedEvac markings are on it.

Captain Ed Freeman is coming in for you.

He's not MedEvac so it's not his job, but he heard the radio call and decided he's flying his Huey down into the machine gun fire anyway.

Even after the MedEvacs were ordered not to come. He's coming anyway.

And he drops it in and sits there in the machine gun fire, as they load 3 of you at a time on board.

Then he  flies you up and out through the gunfire to the doctors and nurses and safety.

And, he kept coming back!! 13 more  times!!

Until all  the wounded were out. No one knew until the mission was over that the Captain had been hit 4 times in the legs and left arm.

He took 29 of you and your buddies out that day. Some would not have made it without the Captain and his Huey.

Medal  of Honor Recipient, Captain Ed Freeman, United States Air Force, died last Wednesday at the age of 70, in Boise, Idaho.
May God Bless and Rest His Soul.


Black Bear Hunting – Methods and Madness

21 Nov

hunting guides,hunting outfitters,black bear hunting,whitetail hunting

Black bear hunting is one of the most rewarding hunts available to the avid hunter amongst us.  With healthy populations ranging from coast-to-coast and from Canada to Mexico, almost everyone has an opportunity to pursue these bruins.  How you go about your black bear hunt is a totally different question.   There are several different methods for hunting black bears including:

1.  Hunting over bait:

This method is very popular in portions of Canada and the eastern United States.  It requires a hunter to be patient and be familiar with the size of black bear that they are after as you are likely to see several black bears every day.  Typically, there is a "king of the hill" at most bait sites if you are patient enough to wait for him.  You will know he is close when the other bears at the site become anxious and may leave for no apparent reason.  Get ready, your chance to harvest a monster bear may be just minutes away!

2.  Spot and Stalk:

Like any spot and stalk method, the secret to success in bear hunting using this method is to find a high vantage point where you can glass a potential feeding area for black bears.  Typical areas you want to glass are grassy meadows, open clear cuts or cut blocks, berry patches and south facing slopes in general.  Early in the year, black bear will mostly be grazing on grassy meadows as they come out of hibernation and are looking to replenish their lost fat reserves.  Concentrate in these areas early in the year  for your best success.

3.  Hound Hunting:

Black bear hunting behind a well trained pack of hounds is one of the most exciting, and physical, methods of hunting bruins.  From the first bay of the hound, indicating they are on the scent, to the final treeing of the bear, this method of hunting black bear is an adrenaline filled rush.  Unfortunately, due to the anti-hunting crowd, this method of hunting has been outlawed in some states.  If you are interested in this type of hunting, remember you must be in top physical condition.  Once the hounds are on the scent, there is very little time for breaks or resting.  Try it and you will be hooked for life.

4.  Still Hunting:

Like any still hunting, this can be a very challenging method of bear hunting, but can still produce success in those areas that are brushy and offer only small openings to glass.  Use this method when you are hunting in timbered regions.  This method can be effective during the spring seasons when bear are busy replenishing fat reserves and not quite as wary as other times of the year.

5.  Calling:

Use predator calls in conjunction with either your spot and stalk hunt or your still hunting.  During deer and elk calving season, black bear are especially susceptible to fawn calls.  Calling is most effective once you have located a bear and are trying to get him  in to range.  There are several good electronic calls on the market.  Or be brave and get a predator call from any sporting good shop and let'er rip! The best part of this type of bear hunting, is you may have an opportunity to harvest other predators including coyotes, fox, bobcats, and cougars.  Keep an eye open, as most of these predators will sneak in on you and be closer than you expect when you first spot them.

If you have any other methods of bear hunting, please feel free to add them in the comment section.  If you are interested in a black bear hunt, check out our top quality bear outfitters.  You will never regret the decision to add a bruin to your trophy room.

Remember, time in the field is a gift…..savor it!

Until next time, Happy Hunting.

Bob Russell

The Hunting Broker


Young Guns – The Future of Our Sport

14 Nov

For many of us, our annual deer hunting trip or elk camp is a time for us to get away with the guys and share stories of hunting glories, both past and present. We selfishly guard admittance to our camp, and reluctantly grant membership to anyone new.  But then things change.  Those toddlers we use to leave behind with the "womenfolk", have  gotten bigger and asked to join the group.  It is at times like these that we realize it is up to each of us to pass on the heritage of this great sport of hunting.    Here are some ideas how:

1.  Take your own children hunting:

There is nothing more rewarding than taking your children with you on their first hunting experience.  For me and my oldest son, it was a mule deer hunt in Eastern Oregon.  Thirty minutes in to the hunt, a bull elk with a small harem burst in to the meadow we were set up in.  Although my son didn't harvest a deer, the thrill of seeing that bull, breath steaming in the cool of the morning air, is a memory we both cherish.



2.  Take a child who is not related to you:

My kids are  now 22, 20 and 17 and well on their way to becoming proficient deer and elk hunters in their own right.  It is now time to look for other kids to introduce to the great outdoors and hunting.  This can be more difficult than with your own children, but we all know kids in our community who could benefit from our experience and knowledge of hunting.  There  are many life lessons to be learned during a week in the company of the "elders".


exotic hunting, hog hunting,hunting guides,hunting outfitters

3.  Mentor a child:

Most states have a minimum hunting age of 12 years old.  However, many states have implemented a mentor program, whereby an experienced hunter can take a younger child on a hunt prior to legal shooting age.  The mentor acts as a 1×1 hunting guide, teaching the youth the ways of the woods.  The mentor does not hunt, but rather insures the young hunter is both safe and successful.


4.  Introduce a young adult to hunting:

Many times our focus is on our youth, which is appropriate.  But we also need to recognize those young adults who never had the opportunity to hunt while growing up. I am a prime example, as my first hunting experience came when I was 32 years old.  I plan on passing this gift along, when I take my youngest son's college roommates on their first hunt later this year. 

hunting guides,hunting outfitters,mule deer hunting,whitetail hunting

Remember, without a new crop of hunters, this sport that we cherish is destined to become a thing of the past.  Attacks from anti-hunting groups, environmental groups, and anti-fur groups continue to increase.  Without a new generation of dedicated outdoorsmen and women, hunting will eventually go the way of the dodo.  Next time you are planning a hunting trip, take a kid.  Pass on the heritage.

Remember, time in the field is a gift, savor it.

Until next time, Happy Hunting

Bob Russell

The Hunting Broker











Password Reset

Please enter your e-mail address. You will receive a new password via e-mail.